Taken from an Archaeological survey of Barton Hill Bristol.
Thomas Hooper died in 1845. Jacob Crook is stated as owner in 1847
3.1 The study area is situated in the historic parish of SS Philip & Jacob Without, which formed a
part of the hundred of Swinehead and later part of the hundred of Kings Barton (or Barton
Regis), in the county of Gloucestershire until 1835, when the outparish was incorporated into
the City and County of Bristol (a county corporate).
3.2 Swinehead Hundred is not yet covered by the Victoria History of the Counties of England, but
a general accounts of Barton Hill can be found in Rudder (1779).
Prehistoric and Roman
3.3 There is no evidence for prehistoric or Romano-British activity in the vicinity of the study
area. However the possibility of early activity around the site cannot be precluded.
3.4 The study area lay well to the east of the limits of the burgh of Bricgstow, established by the
later 10th century, and no archaeological remains from this period have been found in the
vicinity. By the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 the study area lay within the bounds of
the Royal Forest of Kingswood, a part of the extensive Royal Manor of Barton (Regis).
3.5 At the time of the Domesday Survey in 1086 the manor of Barton lay in the Hundred of
Swinehead in Gloucestershire. The entry for Barton Regis, referred to as ‘Bertune’ reads:
In Barton (Regis) at Bristol there were 6 hides. In lordship 3 ploughs; 22 villagers
and 25 smallholders with 25 ploughs. 9 slaves and 18 freedmen who have 14 ploughs.
2 mills at 27s.
3.6 Land in the manor of Barton Regis produced timber and farm produce for the maintenance of
Bristol Castle (Morris 1982, 153b, Williams & Martin 1992, 448). The study area then may
well have comprised demesne pastures of the Barton to the north-east of an area of marsh
that was periodically flooded by the tidal River Avon and referred to in contemporary
documents as the ‘Kings Marsh’ (now St Philips Marsh).
3.7 By 1260 the new Hundred of Barton Regis had been created out of part of the old Swinehead
Hundred, incorporating various members of the manor including Bitton, Hanham and
Hambrook (Smith 1964, 83).
3.8 The parish church of SS Philip & Jacob, founded c.1137, was a cell of Tewkesbury Abbey
and may well have owned land in the ‘Kings Barton’. Numerous medieval ecclesiastical
records and deeds survive in Bristol Record Office (BRO), which indicate that development
was occurring beyond the boundaries of the town between the late 12th and 13th centuries,
yet although names of houses, curtilages, crofts and land holdings are mentioned, the use of
topographical features or contemporary place names to describe locations means that it is
practically impossible to accurately locate boundaries prior to the 17th century (Walker 1998,
345-48). For example, the names of some of the pastures in the Barton are recorded, such as a
meadow belonging to St Mark’s Hospital called ‘Wainbroke’ (after the Wain Brook) that
extended in the 13th century between the ‘meadow of the hospital of St Lawrence of Bristol
and the meadow formerly of Richard de Pisa’ (Ross 1959, 249).
BaRAS Report No. 2129/2009 Site of Winstanley House, Holmes Street, Barton Hill, Bristol. 4
3.9 The study area lay outside the boundaries of the newly constituted County of Bristol,
established during the reign of King Edward III in 1373.
3.10 The very dispersed settlement pattern that characterised the Barton was a product of
piecemeal, progressive encroachment and small-scale colonisation of the former royal lands,
a process that accelerated following the formal disafforestation of the Royal Forest. The
medieval state records known as the ‘Pipe Rolls’ make it clear that so-called ‘preprestures’
(illegal clearances and enclosures within the bounds of the legal forest) were being
established as early as the 12th century (Moore 1982).
3.11 From the late 18th-century industries such as glass-making, potteries and brickworks began
to develop on the north bank of the River Avon. Following the construction of the Feeder
Canal c.1809, the opening of the Great Western Cotton factory in 1838 and the railway in
1839 the area became increasingly industrialised. Low-quality housing for workers was soon
built along the lanes leading to the various industrial premises.
3.12 The parish of SS. Philip & Jacob was part of Gloucestershire until it was incorporated into
the City and County of Bristol in 1835. The tithe apportionment that accompanies the SS.
Philip and Jacob Tithe map of 1847 (Fig.4) gives details of the areal units (1083 & 1086)
within the study area (see Table 1). The house in areal unit 1086 was then occupied by
Owner Occupier Name and
a. r . p.
1083 Jacob Crook Moses
Garden Land Arable 4 1 17
1084 ----Do---- ----Do---- ----Do---- ----Do---- 1 2 25
1085 ----Do---- ----Do---- ----Do---- ----Do---- 1 0 31
1086 ----Do---- ----Do---- House & Land ----Do---- 1 0 20
1088 ----Do---- ----Do---- Garden land ----Do---- 6 1 13
Table 1: Extract from SS Philip & Jacob tithe apportionment
(see Fig.4 for map)
3.13 Tilly’s Court House was vacant as a dwelling from 1820 to 1852, after this date it was rented
by the Goodrope family who changed the name of the house to Queen Anne’s House
(Pritchard 1894, 73). The pottery established there by James Duffett utilised the barns, yards
and adjoining land until it moved to a site opposite some time in the later 1850s or early
3.14 The study area was included within the new parish of ‘St Luke, Barton Hill’ created in 1850
out of part of the parish of SS Philip & Jacob. The new church (Grade II Listed Building;
Listed Building No. 901-1/43/360), erected in 1842-3, was built to minister to the
increasingly populous suburb.
3.15 In 1896 the street name of Barton Hill Lane was formally changed to Queen Ann Road.